Archive for the ‘Shoe’s’ Category

History of Shoes & Shoe Making: Anatomy of a Shoe

January 4, 2008

History of Shoes: Shoe Making
Dr. Mel J. Colón, Podiatrist
International Medical Clinics
History of Shoes: Shoe Making
Dr. Mel J. Colón, Podiatrist
International Medical Clinics
Anatomy of the shoe
According to McPhoil (1988) the anatomy of a shoe can be divided in an upper and lower (or bottom part). Sections of the upper include vamp, quarter, toebox, throat, insole board, and topline. The sections of the lower shoe consist of an outsole, shank and heel.
The Upper of the Shoe
All parts or sections of the shoe above the sole that are stitched or otherwise joined together to become a unit then attached to the insole and outsole. The upper of the shoe consists of the vamp or front of the shoe, the quarter i.e. the sides and back of the shoe, and the linings. Uppers are made in a variety of different materials, both natural and synthetic. Leather became the obvious cover of choice because it allowed air to pass through to and from the skin pores thereby providing an opportunity to keep the feet, cool. The plastic properties of animal skins further help mould the shoe to the foot beneath. The ability for
leather to crease over flexor surfaces facilitate the function of the foot. Ironically synthetics used as uppers display elastic properties, which mean the shoe upper never quite adjusts to the foot, shape in the same way as natural leather. Synthetics are cheaper to mass-produce and are now found in most mass produced footwear. Synthetic uppers are more waterproof. Woven fabric such as cotton corduroy can be used as uppers. Classified as breathable fabrics these help aeration.
Vamp
The vamp covers the dorsum of the foot (includes the tongue piece) and superior aspects over the toes. This section i.e. the toe puff is reinforced which serves to give the shoe its shape as well as protect the toes. The vamp is often made of more than one piece, creating a decorative pattern. There are various types of vamps suited to different styles of shoes.
Quarter
The complete upper part of the shoe behind the vamp line covering the sides and backpart. The top edge of the sides and back of the quarter describes the topline of the shoe. In athletic shoes the topline is often padded and referred to as a collar. The medial and lateral sections join in a seam at the posterior end of the shoe. In Oxford style lacing shoes, the eyelet section is formed by the superior part of the quarter (while the underlying tongue is part of the vamp). In the Gibson style the lacing segment forms part of the vamp. The heel section of the quarter is frequently reinforced with a stiffener. This helps support the rearfoot. In boots the quarter is often referred to as ‘top’. In the Bal method, the front edges of both quarters are stitched together and covered with the back edge of the vamp. In the Blucher method the quarter panels are placed on top of the vamp, and the front edges are not sewn together. In comparison with the Bal method, the Blucher method permits the fitting of a larger foot girth by broadening the throat of the shoe. A convalescent shoe (open to toe) is a variation on the Blucher method in which the lacing extends to the front edge of the vamp. In athletic shoes the vamp and quarter panels are often one continuous piece of nylon or leather with additional leather pieces added to reinforce critical areas of the shoe. Reinforcement added to the region of the medial longitudinal arch are termed the saddle if it is added to the outside of the shoe or the arch bandage if it is added to the inside of the shoe. The counter is a component of the quarter that stabilises the hindfoot in the shoe and retains the shape of the posterior portion of the shoe. Counters are usually made from fibreboard or heat moulded plastic. Foxing is an additional piece of leather that covers the counter externally. Sometimes a counter will extend medially to support the heel and prevent prolonged pronation. In some children’s shoes and athletic footwear the stiffener is extended on the medial of the arch to provide an anti-pronatory wedge.
Toecap
Many shoes incorporate a toecap into the upper of the shoe. Toecaps are either stitched over or completely replace the distal superior aspect of the vamp and can be made into a decorative features referred to as toe tips. The toe box refers to the roofed area over and around the part of the shoe that covers the toes. The function of the toe box is to retain the shape of the forefoot and allow room for
the toes. The height and width of the toe box is dictated by shape of the last used to construct the shoe. Certain types of non-athletic and athletic footgear will offer extra depth in the toe box.
Linings
In quality shoes the quarters and vamps are lined to enhance comfort and durability. Linings may consist of various materials ie leathers, fabrics, and manmade synthetics. The lining on the insole segment is called ‘the sock’ and may be full-length, three-quarter or just the heel section. Many linings are made of synthetic material and are usually confined to the quarters and the insock.
Throat
The central part of the vamp just proximal to the toe box. The throat is formed by the seam joining the vamp to the quarter i.e. throatline. The position of the throat line depends on the construction of the shoe, for example a shorter vamp and longer quarters define a lower throat line. This gives a wider lower opening for the foot to enter the shoe. The throat is defined by the connection of the rear edge of the vamp and the front part of the quarter. The location of the throat will vary with the design of the shoe. Because the vamp and quarter panels are often one piece in the athletic shoe, the throat is at the eyestay. This refers to the point where the lacing is attached to the vamp. The throat of the shoe dictates the maximum girth permitted by the shoe.
The Sole of the Shoe
The term sole derives from ‘solea’ a Latin word meaning soil or ground.
Insole (inner sole)
A layer of material shaped to the bottom of the last and sandwiched between the outsole (or midsole) and the sole of the foot inside the shoe. The insole covers the join between the upper and the sole in most methods of construction and provides attachment for the upper, toe box linings and welting. This provides a platform upon which the foot can operate and separates the upper from the lower. The insole board is necessary in shoes that are constructed using cemented or
Goodyear welt techniques because it is the attachment for upper and lower components. The majority of insole boards are made of cellulose and are treated with additives to inhibit bacterial growth. Athletic shoewear will often have a sockliner, a piece of material placed over the top of the insole board (glued in position or removable.
Outsole
This is the outer most sole of the shoe, which is directly exposed to abrasion and wear. Traditionally made from a variety of materials, the outsole is constructed in different thickness and degrees of flexibility. Ideal soling materials must be waterproof, durable and possess a coefficient of friction high enough to prevent slipping. Leather has poor gripping capabilities and synthetic polymers are much preferred. There are also an infinite variety of surface designs. Extra grip properties can be incorporated in the form of a distinctive sole pattern with well-defined ridges. Alternatively they can be moulded with cavities to reduce the weight of the sole. These cavities need to be covered with a rigid insole or can be filled with light foam to produce a more flexible sole. In some cases two or more materials of different densities can be incorporated into the sole to give a hard wearing outer surface and a softer, more flexible midsole for greater comfort. Synthetic soling materials will off the physical property of dampening down impact levels (shock attenuation).
Shank
The shank bridges between the heel breast and the ball tred. The shankpiece or shank spring can be made from wood, metal, fibreglass or plastic and consists of a piece approximately 10cm long and 1.5 cm wide. The shank spring lies within the bridge or waist of the shoe, i.e. between heel and ball corresponding to the medial and lateral arches. The shankpiece reinforces the waist of the shoe and prevents it from collapsing or distorting in wear. The contour of the shank is determined by heel height. Shoes with low heels or wedged soles do not require a shank because the torque between the rear and forefoot does not distort the shoe.
Heel
The heel is the raised component under the rear of the shoe. Heels consist of a variety of shapes, heights, and materials and are made of a series of raised platforms or a hollowed section. The part of the heel next to sole is usually shaped to fit the heel, this is called the heel seat or heel base. The heel breast describes front face of the heel. The ground contact section is called the top piece. Heels raise the rear of the shoe above the ground. A shoe without a heel or midsole wedge may be completely flat. When the heel section sits lower than the forefoot the style is called a ‘negative heel’.
Welt
The strip of material which joins the upper to the sole. Most shoes will be bonded by Goodyear-welted construction. Some shoes use an imitation welt stitched around the top flat edge of the sole for decorative purposes, but it is not a functional part of the shoe.
Shoe Lasts and Metrology
Most shoes are made to a last. This is a foot model with dimensions and shape similar to the anatomical foot but sufficiently different to not be exact. Shoe fit and to some extent the last influences its durability.
Last
“The close relationship between a man and his shoe maker was based on the shared secret of the client’s measurements. The statistics of clients were never disclosed.”
Traditionally before mass production, the original shoemaker started the process by taking a footprint outline of the sole. He whittled or chiselled a wooden last from the print. A last ( ‘laest’, Old English meaning footprint) was traditionally made from wood but are now available now in metal or plastic. They are complex structures made from many measurements (statistically determined). Lasts are not the same size and dimensions of the anatomical foot but instead an abstract form with specific functions. It is usually deeper in the midfoot region, has a sharp ‘feather edge’ where the upper surface meets the sole, is clipped in along the
topline (around the ankle) and is flaired over and extended in the toe region. This provides shape, which applies appropriate tension when the shoe distorts to contain the loaded foot. Lasts provides a working surface on which flat leather components can be given plastic form. The physical dimensions accommodate the foot during activity and the last contains contemporary fashion and styles such as toe shape. To allow the last to be removed from the shoe they are often hinged around the instep. Shoe lasts are not made to resemble feet but instead to suit the shoe manufacture. Modern lasts are totally unlike the foot with the sole of the last, flat in order to assist in manufacture. Shoe making was classified under three headings: turned shoes, welted shoes and through-seam shoes.
Turned shoe
The turned shoe is made inside out with only an outset sole between the foot and the ground. The upper and soles are very flexible. The last is designed in a single size and then a set is made in the range of sizes and widths in which shoes are to be manufactured. Marked sizes will vary slightly from one manufacturer to another. No longer a popular technique.
Welted Shoes
Any construction using a welting, either as an intrigal part of the construction or simply for imitative effect.
Through Seam Shoes
Anthropometry
Studies show over 90% of people have different sized feet. Despite feet being the same length other dimensions vary with the individual foot. Activity of the foot will also change the shape of identical feet in accordance with the structure and function of the appendage. The idea of a perfect fit is not a reality. Because distribution or proportions of foot mass differ with individuals, which mean linear measurement such as length and breadth of the foot alone, are inadequate. It is important shoemakers consider mass and volume of feet if an exact fit is to be afforded. To ensure a best fit, measurements are taken at strategic locations and the shoemaker uses both linear as well volume measurement to construct a shoe. The modern last is made in three dimensions although it is not a direct replica of the foot. Instead it is made with production requirements, in mind. The lastmaker may take up to 35 measurements before the model last can be made. A shoe fitter may concentrate on length, ball width, heel, topline, arch and instep. The shoe is expected to wear well, feel well, keep its shape with wear, retain its style character, tread properly, allow for reasonable foot freedom, maintain both foot and shoe balance, remain structurally intact. These features are not always dependent on the quality of materials or components, or the manufacturing process. The design and multiple dimensions of the last provide the basis for the above.
Features built into a last include:
Measurements
The majority of measurements are volume rather than the traditional length and width associated with shoe fit.
Throat opening
The distance from the vamp point to the back seam tuck.
Length
The length measurement of the foot from the back of the heel to the tip of the longest toe.
Foot Girth
There are four girth and circumference measurements taken on a last. These are the ball, waist, instep and heel (back of heel to instep). Measurement requires careful assessment of the foot, which cannot be accomplished with the same precision as linear measurements. The modern last maker uses precision instruments to determine girth but the old shoemakers used the hand span to this same effect. Aspects of the foot were measured against the shoemaker’s hand, the ball of the foot was compared to the girth between the thumb and the middle finger. The instep was measured between the thumb and the little finger. This method was subject to enormous variations depending upon the size of the shoemaker’s hand.
􀂃 Ball girth This is the girth measurement around the ball of the last to determine the width and volume allowance inside the shoe.
􀂃 Waist girth The girth at the waist on the last.
􀂃 Instep girth The circumference around the foot at the instep.
􀂃 Heel girth The distance around the foot from the rear base of the heel to the top of the instep.
Recede Toe
This is the part of the last, which projects beyond the tip of the toes forming the rounded contour of the front of the shoe. A tapering recede such as in todays sharp shoes increases the overall length of the shoe. In a poorly designed last the recede may encroach on the toes increasing tension on the ends of the toes. This may be referred to as tight lasting.
Heel-to-ball
This dictates the position of the hinge of the forefoot (metatarsal phalangeal joints) and the widest part of the shoe (across the metatarsal heads).
Toe Spring
This describes the elevation of the undersurface of the sole at the toe to give a slight rocker effect to the shoe. The amount of toe spring (built into the last) depends on the shoe style, sole thickness and heel height. This is built into the last design and compensates for the stiffness of the footwear and provided a stress free take off into propulsion. The more rigid the soling material the greater the toe spring. Many shoes will also display a slight heel spring.
Tread
This describes the width across the sole under the ball of the last and it should correspond to the dimension of the feet. The tread point on the last represents the bottom forepart just behind the ball and in contact with the base plane.
Flare
This describes the curve or contour of the last. The swing is determined by the position of the forepart when the last is bisected longitudinally forwards from the centre of the heel arc. With In inflare lasts there is an inward medial swing to the forepart and most modern shoes are made on an inflare last (banana last) because it is thought shoes are more comfortable. An outflare last describes the opposite with the swing lying to the lateral side of the forepart. Sometimes used in bespoke footwear for infants with diagnosed foot development problems. Straights last describe neither an inflare or outflare preference. The long axis of the last when drawn through the bisection of the heel curve describes two equal longitudinal halves. The normal foot has a straight axis and hence straight lasted shoes can be worn on either foot. Prior to the introduction of machinery to make heeled shoes it was common to have shoe made with a straight flare until the turn of the twentieth century.
Methods of Shoe Construction
There are many ways to attach the sole to the upper but commercially only a few methods are preferred. Shoes were traditionally made by moulding leather to a wooden last. Modern technology has introduced many new materials and mechanised much of the manufacture. Remarkable as it may seem the manufacture of shoes remains fairly labour intensive. No matter the type of construction the first stage in construction is to attach the insole to the undersurface of the last. Two main operations follow : Lasting describes the upper sections are shaped to the last and insole. Followed by Bottoming, where the sole is attached to the upper. The process of bottoming will determine price, quality and performance of the shoe.
Cement
Alernative names include:
‘Stuck on construction’ (UK) and the ‘Compo Process’.
For lightweight and flexible footwear the outsole is stuck to the upper by an adhesive. Bonwelt is a variation with its distinguishing feature being a strip of welting attached by stitching or cementing to the top edge of the insole. The shoe is then flat lasted. This is not a true welt construction wherein the welt is attached to the rib of the insole.
Goodyear Welt
For high quality dress and town shoes the top section (or welt) is chain stitched to the upper and insole rib at the point where it curves under the last. This is supplemented by a lockstitch outseam bonding the welt and outsole. The outsole is then sewn to the welt around the edge. Goodyear Welt creates heavier less flexible footwear.
Stitchdown
Alernative names include:
Veldt or veldschoen
A cheaper method used to produce lightweight flexible soles for children’s shoes and some casual footwear describes the upper turned out (flanged) at the edge of the last. This is then stitched to the runner. In some countries it is known as ‘veldt’ and ‘veldtschoen.’
Mocassin
Thought to be the oldest shoe construction this consists of a single layer section, which forms the insole, vamp and quarters. The piece is moulded upwards from the Under surface of the last. An apron is then stitched to the gathered edges of the vamp and the sole is stitched to the base of the shoe. This method is used for flexible fashion footwear. The imitation moccasin has a visual appearance of a
moccasin but does not have the wrap around construction of the genuine moccasin.
Moulded Methods
The lasted upper is placed in a mould and the sole formed around it by injecting liquid synthetic soling material (PVC, urethane). Alternatively, the sole may be vulcanised by converting uncured rubber into a stable compound by heat and pressure. When the materials in the moulds cool the sole-upper bonding is complete. These methods combine the upper permanently into the sole and such shoes cannot therefore be repaired easily. Moulded methods can be used to make most types of footwear.
Force Lasting
Alternative names include:
The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock)
Force lasting has evolved from sport shoes but is increasingly used in other footwear. The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock) describes one of many force lasting techniques. The upper is sewn directly to a sock by means of an overlooking machine (Strobel stitcher) The upper is then pulled (force lasted) onto a last or moulding foot. Unit soles with raised walls or moulded soles are attached to completely cover the seam. This technique is sometimes known as the Californian process or slip lasting.
Shoe Styles
According to Rossi (1997) there are eight basic footwear styles with the rest made up as variations on the basic themes. To comply with definition a shoe describes footwear with a mechanism capable of holding the foot in the heel of the shoe to facilitate support during push off. Hence there are two critical aspect of shoes i.e.. the band around the instep and the section corresponding to the human heel. To prevent unnecessary movement these need to be firm and fit the foot.
Style
Brief Description
Boot
Any footwear extending above the ankle. There are numerous designs and types for a variety of uses and made from a number of materials.
Clog
A thick soled wooden shoe sometimes with leather upper.
Lace Up
Oxford Shoe
Derby Style
Any low cut shoe fastened by lacings, such as an Oxford or Blucher.
Style
Brief Description
Moccasin
Moccasin
Imitation Moccasin
The term moccasin originates from the Algonquian language for foot covering. The Algonquians were any of several North American Indian tribes formerly inhabiting the region along the Ottawa River and near the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence River. The oldest
form of shoe dates back to 14,000 years and was thought to originate from the Mongol tribes who migrated along the Bering Strait into North America. Originally it described a simple one-piece hide, wrapped round the foot and held on with rawhide thongs. Later the Indians gradually stylised the moccasin by adding the moccasin plug, fringes and coloured beads, which depicted rank and occupation. Today moccasin shoes usually describe imitation moccasins, which had their origins in Norway. The Norwegian Peasant Slip-on (or weejun) was first imported to the US by tourists in the 1930s and later Gucci made a leather loafer in refined calfskin with a metal snaffle bit across the instep. Soon loafers were available in the spectator style (two colours). By the 50s Penny Loafers were all the rage with the campus Ivy League of the US. Made in ox blood they were also
known as the Norwegian slipper. The Low vamp loafer was designed for females and was made from soft
kid leather and cut low.
Mule
A backless shoe or slipper with or without a heel.
Style
Brief Discription
Sandal
Hieroglyphics
Sport Sandals
Casuals
Originally a slab of leather sole attached to the foot by thongs. Today any open
shoe who’s upper consists of any decorative or functional arrangement of straps. A sandal can be foot low to knee high, or with any heel height, designed for simple utility or casual wear or as a
fashion shoe.
Monks
Similar to Derby Shoes but with a
cross over section to fasten the quarters with a side buckle.
Pumps
Heeled shoes with low cut fronts and usually no fastening.
Sandals
Hieroglyphics
Sport Sandals
Casuals
Originally a slab of leather sole attached to the foot by thongs. Today any open
shoe who’s upper consists of any decorative or functional arrangement of straps. A sandal can be foot low to knee high, or with any heel height, designed for simple utility or casual wear or as a fashion shoe.
Shoe Size System
A continual frustration to many who care for the foot weary is the absence of a standard shoe size system. Although metrology and reliable measurements have been in existence for approximately two hundred years, the concept of a shoe sizing system is relatively recent. Shoe sizing systems based on standard metrological measurements have been in existence for just over 100 years but shoes made in half sizes have only been available half that time. As part of the protection many craftsmen operated in early times, shoes were individually coded. Like a painter signing the canvas, shoemakers marked the inside of the shoe with their persona codes. This deliberately kept the size a secret from the customer and virtually ensured their return for new shoes. This is still in evidence today and many manufacturers maintain individual size systems in order to promote customer loyalty. The first US record of shoes marked with sizes dates back to between 1860 and 1870. The procedure soon followed in England. It was only full sizes recorded (half sizes did not appear until the late 1880s). In 1886 the Hanan Shoe Co. were the first manufacturer to stamp their name on their shoes. In 1888 the first fitting stool was introduced to the trade by Sollers Shoe Manufacturing Co., Philadephia.
The Shoe Stick
The origin of shoe sticks date back to antiquity. They were described in Ancient Egypt, Rome and Greece and used by shoe and sandal makers. For centuries there was no shoe size standards or systems and each craftsman was free to use his own method. It was common to use their own bodies particularly their hands as gauges. An English yard for example was the length of the arm i.e. shoulder to fingertips or sometimes nose to fingertips. The problem was not everyone was the same size and when a human foot was used to measure footage of land, much depended on the size of the individual as to how much the purchaser bought and the seller sold. In Rome, the inch (which was one twelfth of a foot) measured the width across the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. By the 7th century in England, the barleycorn became a standard measurement with three ears of corn, laid end to end, equalling one inch. It took until the thirteenth century before the inch was officially sanctioned. Under pressure, Edward II (r. 1307-27) eventually succumbed to appeals from scholars and tradesmen to issue a decree to standardise measurement (Ledger, 1985). Henceforth an English inch was the distance measured across three barleycorns taken from the centre of the ear and placed end to end equalled an inch. Thirty nine (39) barleycorns laid end to end became a foot and 117 laid end to end became a yard. Whilst the barleycorn decree of Edward II had nothing to do with shoe sizes per se many shoemakers began to use shoe sticks. Tradesmen had traditionally used the handspan method of measurement, which preferred the quarter of an inch unit, but after the introduction of the barleycorn measure, many began to adopt the third of an inch unit. With 39 barley corns approximating the length of a normal foot, this was graded size 13 and became the largest shoe size. Other sizes were graded down by 1/3 rd of an inch or one barleycorn. It took until 1850 before the first uniform shoe stick using the English size system appeared. Ironically this took place in France and shoe sticks were not accepted in North America, until after 1900. Today shoes are marked according to one of three different length sizing systems depending on where the shoes were made. The three major systems are United Kingdom, American and Continental (or Paris Point):
American System
The first shoe sizing system with detailed proportional measurements for lasts and shoes came from North America. The instigator, Edwin B Simpson of New York, prepared the
first chart of standardised last measurements in 1880. This included shoe widths but it was another seven years before the Retail Boot and Shoe Dealer’s National Association adopted the system. Much of the impetus to introduce a size system had arisen during the American Civil War (1861-65) where mass produced shoes were made in left and rights for the first time. As the main shoe manufacturers were in the North then orders for soldiers required a size system. To make it easier for the Army to order shoes for their servicemen, each soldier was allocated a shoe size as well as a nametag. Despite the availability of inflare footwear, these were not comfortable and many complained. The Confederacy fought barefoot. Right and left shoes were not commercially available for another half century. Although North America legalised the use of the metric system the industry did not adopt it as the only means. Regular reviews of regulation have meet similar non-compliance. Consequently there remains little standardisation of shoe sizes within the US. Ironically the industry continues to use Imperial measurements and each manufacturer determines how large a certain size will be. The only standardisation is each full size is 1/3 of an inch longer than the previous size. Women’s shoes are marked 1 1/2 sizes different than men’s (a size 9 women’s shoe is equal in length to a size 7 1/2 men’s shoe). In the American (or Standard) System the first number in the code represents the width (1 = A, 2 = B) The second number followed by a zero denotes the whole size: when the second number is followed by a 5 it indicates a half size.
Adult Sizes
8.5
8.75
9.0
9.25
9.5
9.75
10
10.25
10.5
10.75
11
11.25
11.5
11.75
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Width Fitting
Shoe width represents both the linear and girth measurements at the ball, and is determined by the last. Several standard and width fittings are available in the UK size system to accommodate differences in three-dimensional girth. In women’s shoes, A is the narrowest and G the widest. For children the range is A to H; and for men it is from 1-8. The girth increase between fittings is normally 6.5mm. Most lines are only available in one size usually women’s D and men’s 4. The girth around the ball of the foot of the foot increases by 5mm for whole sizes up to children’s size 101/2 and 6.5mm for whole sizes above this. In the American system it is two less, eg AAA is the equivalent to the UK A. There is no equivalent Continental width fitting system and the shoes are generally narrower than in the UK. In the American (or Standard) System the first number in the code represents the width (1 = A, 2 = B) The second number followed by a zero denotes the whole size: when the second number is followed by a 5 it indicates a half size. In the American (Arithmetic standard width measurement) this ranges from AAAAA to EEEEEE.
Assessing Footwear
Most clients attend for treatment wearing dress shoes, which are not always their normal footgear. In those situations where shoe costume and foot are considered incompatible, practitioners may tactfully request the client bring the footwear worn for the majority of the working day. In situations where client’s shoes contribute to subjective symptoms but no apparent conscious acceptance is obvious then the practitioner may accept the clients personal choice is a life style decision. Adverse shoe conditions can excite pathologies, compromise prognosis and inhibit satisfactory practice but the choice of footwear always remains with the client. Under these circumstances negotiated care is required where neither party is compromised.
It is important to ascertain a client’s shoe wearing habits. Information about when, where, and how often shoes are bought can be very useful. To avoid a ‘halo effect’, however, assessment should involve tact and sensitivity, combined with a healthy scepticism. People will often report shoe-wearing habits they consider appropriate to a healthy life style especially in the presence of a foot physician. When gathering information tolerance is a virtue, with discretion and understanding essential assets. A sad fact in this day and age is not everyone can afford shoes, especially where multiple children are involved.
People buy shoes to meet specific purposes and all gain benefit from well informed advice. Most obtain perfectly adequate footwear from general or specialised retail outlets. For some, shoes require minor modification to accommodate specific requirements, such as a short leg, whereas a small minority need shoes made specifically to fit their feet ie. bespoke footwear. Made for feet shoes are classified as modular ie a type of footwear fabricated using stock lasts to which minor adjustments can be made; and True, bespoke footwear, which is, made form a customed last. These are available privately or with assistance from medical funds when prescribed. Mass produced or stock footwear is available single size/width or half size multi-width fittings. The former is usual for adult sizes and the latter more common in children shoes.
A list of good habits is in itself inappropriate and it is important to have reference to an appropriate portfolio ie shoe catalogue and suppliers if you wish to inform clients. Most fashion shoes are bought in self-service outlets, including the World Wide Web. Socio-economics determine the vast majority of shoe buyers can ill afford quality footwear associated with personal fitting or made to measure footwear. Most people prescribed orthopaedic footwear require some financial assistance.
Problems with fit
The problems are rarely single and often are multifactorial. Asymmetry and anatomical variation mean challenges for people seeking ideal fit. The style and pattern of a shoe bear an influence on size. The distribution of mass or volume within the shoe affects size and fit. The height of the heel can affect deportment and function, hence the shape of the foot. Shoe types such as fashion footwear and work boots may be fitted with a bit more
size allowance than the slightly snugger fit of an elegant fashion or dress shoe. The type of shoe construction can bare an influence. e.g. welts, cements, slip lasted, stitchdown, injection-moulded etc, will show slight differences in fit on the foot. Some manufacturers or brands apply their own particular specifications of dimensions on their lasts e.g. backpart, forepart, tread, etc. and this makes a difference in fit among different brands on a given size. The foot fitted in the morning will be smaller than the foot fitted in the afternoon. Toe shape of the shoe may influence the fit. Shoes with narrower toes may need to be worn a half size longer (when available).
Discussion
The concept of shoe fit is largely a subjective and personal matter on the part of the fitter or the customer or both. Size alone is not the only determining factor. Research form the Battelle Institute has shown there are at least 38 individual factors influencing or involved in shoe fit. Many of the 38 factors were subjective involving the opinion and attitudes of consumer and fitter alike. In the end it was the customer who determined whether the shoe fitted or not.
According to McPhoil (1988) the anatomy of a shoe can be divided in an upper and lower (or bottom part). Sections of the upper include vamp, quarter, toebox, throat, insole board, and topline. The sections of the lower shoe consist of an outsole, shank and heel.
The Upper of the Shoe
All parts or sections of the shoe above the sole that are stitched or otherwise joined together to become a unit then attached to the insole and outsole. The upper of the shoe consists of the vamp or front of the shoe, the quarter i.e. the sides and back of the shoe, and the linings. Uppers are made in a variety of different materials, both natural and synthetic. Leather became the obvious cover of choice because it allowed air to pass through to and from the skin pores thereby providing an opportunity to keep the feet, cool. The plastic properties of animal skins further help mould the shoe to the foot beneath. The ability for
leather to crease over flexor surfaces facilitate the function of the foot. Ironically synthetics used as uppers display elastic properties, which mean the shoe upper never quite adjusts to the foot, shape in the same way as natural leather. Synthetics are cheaper to mass-produce and are now found in most mass produced footwear. Synthetic uppers are more waterproof. Woven fabric such as cotton corduroy can be used as uppers. Classified as breathable fabrics these help aeration.
Vamp
The vamp covers the dorsum of the foot (includes the tongue piece) and superior aspects over the toes. This section i.e. the toe puff is reinforced which serves to give the shoe its shape as well as protect the toes. The vamp is often made of more than one piece, creating a decorative pattern. There are various types of vamps suited to different styles of shoes.
Quarter
The complete upper part of the shoe behind the vamp line covering the sides and backpart. The top edge of the sides and back of the quarter describes the topline of the shoe. In athletic shoes the topline is often padded and referred to as a collar. The medial and lateral sections join in a seam at the posterior end of the shoe. In Oxford style lacing shoes, the eyelet section is formed by the superior part of the quarter (while the underlying tongue is part of the vamp). In the Gibson style the lacing segment forms part of the vamp. The heel section of the quarter is frequently reinforced with a stiffener. This helps support the rearfoot. In boots the quarter is often referred to as ‘top’. In the Bal method, the front edges of both quarters are stitched together and covered with the back edge of the vamp. In the Blucher method the quarter panels are placed on top of the vamp, and the front edges are not sewn together. In comparison with the Bal method, the Blucher method permits the fitting of a larger foot girth by broadening the throat of the shoe. A convalescent shoe (open to toe) is a variation on the Blucher method in which the lacing extends to the front edge of the vamp. In athletic shoes the vamp and quarter panels are often one continuous piece of nylon or leather with additional leather pieces added to reinforce critical areas of the shoe. Reinforcement added to the region of the medial longitudinal arch are termed the saddle if it is added to the outside of the shoe or the arch bandage if it is added to the inside of the shoe. The counter is a component of the quarter that stabilises the hindfoot in the shoe and retains the shape of the posterior portion of the shoe. Counters are usually made from fibreboard or heat moulded plastic. Foxing is an additional piece of leather that covers the counter externally. Sometimes a counter will extend medially to support the heel and prevent prolonged pronation. In some children’s shoes and athletic footwear the stiffener is extended on the medial of the arch to provide an anti-pronatory wedge.
Toecap
Many shoes incorporate a toecap into the upper of the shoe. Toecaps are either stitched over or completely replace the distal superior aspect of the vamp and can be made into a decorative features referred to as toe tips. The toe box refers to the roofed area over and around the part of the shoe that covers the toes. The function of the toe box is to retain the shape of the forefoot and allow room for
the toes. The height and width of the toe box is dictated by shape of the last used to construct the shoe. Certain types of non-athletic and athletic footgear will offer extra depth in the toe box.
Linings
In quality shoes the quarters and vamps are lined to enhance comfort and durability. Linings may consist of various materials ie leathers, fabrics, and manmade synthetics. The lining on the insole segment is called ‘the sock’ and may be full-length, three-quarter or just the heel section. Many linings are made of synthetic material and are usually confined to the quarters and the insock.
Throat
The central part of the vamp just proximal to the toe box. The throat is formed by the seam joining the vamp to the quarter i.e. throatline. The position of the throat line depends on the construction of the shoe, for example a shorter vamp and longer quarters define a lower throat line. This gives a wider lower opening for the foot to enter the shoe. The throat is defined by the connection of the rear edge of the vamp and the front part of the quarter. The location of the throat will vary with the design of the shoe. Because the vamp and quarter panels are often one piece in the athletic shoe, the throat is at the eyestay. This refers to the point where the lacing is attached to the vamp. The throat of the shoe dictates the maximum girth permitted by the shoe.
The Sole of the Shoe
The term sole derives from ‘solea’ a Latin word meaning soil or ground.
Insole (inner sole)
A layer of material shaped to the bottom of the last and sandwiched between the outsole (or midsole) and the sole of the foot inside the shoe. The insole covers the join between the upper and the sole in most methods of construction and provides attachment for the upper, toe box linings and welting. This provides a platform upon which the foot can operate and separates the upper from the lower. The insole board is necessary in shoes that are constructed using cemented or
Goodyear welt techniques because it is the attachment for upper and lower components. The majority of insole boards are made of cellulose and are treated with additives to inhibit bacterial growth. Athletic shoewear will often have a sockliner, a piece of material placed over the top of the insole board (glued in position or removable.
Outsole
This is the outer most sole of the shoe, which is directly exposed to abrasion and wear. Traditionally made from a variety of materials, the outsole is constructed in different thickness and degrees of flexibility. Ideal soling materials must be waterproof, durable and possess a coefficient of friction high enough to prevent slipping. Leather has poor gripping capabilities and synthetic polymers are much preferred. There are also an infinite variety of surface designs. Extra grip properties can be incorporated in the form of a distinctive sole pattern with well-defined ridges. Alternatively they can be moulded with cavities to reduce the weight of the sole. These cavities need to be covered with a rigid insole or can be filled with light foam to produce a more flexible sole. In some cases two or more materials of different densities can be incorporated into the sole to give a hard wearing outer surface and a softer, more flexible midsole for greater comfort. Synthetic soling materials will off the physical property of dampening down impact levels (shock attenuation).
Shank
The shank bridges between the heel breast and the ball tred. The shankpiece or shank spring can be made from wood, metal, fibreglass or plastic and consists of a piece approximately 10cm long and 1.5 cm wide. The shank spring lies within the bridge or waist of the shoe, i.e. between heel and ball corresponding to the medial and lateral arches. The shankpiece reinforces the waist of the shoe and prevents it from collapsing or distorting in wear. The contour of the shank is determined by heel height. Shoes with low heels or wedged soles do not require a shank because the torque between the rear and forefoot does not distort the shoe.
Heel
The heel is the raised component under the rear of the shoe. Heels consist of a variety of shapes, heights, and materials and are made of a series of raised platforms or a hollowed section. The part of the heel next to sole is usually shaped to fit the heel, this is called the heel seat or heel base. The heel breast describes front face of the heel. The ground contact section is called the top piece. Heels raise the rear of the shoe above the ground. A shoe without a heel or midsole wedge may be completely flat. When the heel section sits lower than the forefoot the style is called a ‘negative heel’.
Welt
The strip of material which joins the upper to the sole. Most shoes will be bonded by Goodyear-welted construction. Some shoes use an imitation welt stitched around the top flat edge of the sole for decorative purposes, but it is not a functional part of the shoe.
Shoe Lasts and Metrology
Most shoes are made to a last. This is a foot model with dimensions and shape similar to the anatomical foot but sufficiently different to not be exact. Shoe fit and to some extent the last influences its durability.
Last
“The close relationship between a man and his shoe maker was based on the shared secret of the client’s measurements. The statistics of clients were never disclosed.”
Traditionally before mass production, the original shoemaker started the process by taking a footprint outline of the sole. He whittled or chiselled a wooden last from the print. A last ( ‘laest’, Old English meaning footprint) was traditionally made from wood but are now available now in metal or plastic. They are complex structures made from many measurements (statistically determined). Lasts are not the same size and dimensions of the anatomical foot but instead an abstract form with specific functions. It is usually deeper in the midfoot region, has a sharp ‘feather edge’ where the upper surface meets the sole, is clipped in along the
topline (around the ankle) and is flaired over and extended in the toe region. This provides shape, which applies appropriate tension when the shoe distorts to contain the loaded foot. Lasts provides a working surface on which flat leather components can be given plastic form. The physical dimensions accommodate the foot during activity and the last contains contemporary fashion and styles such as toe shape. To allow the last to be removed from the shoe they are often hinged around the instep. Shoe lasts are not made to resemble feet but instead to suit the shoe manufacture. Modern lasts are totally unlike the foot with the sole of the last, flat in order to assist in manufacture. Shoe making was classified under three headings: turned shoes, welted shoes and through-seam shoes.
Turned shoe
The turned shoe is made inside out with only an outset sole between the foot and the ground. The upper and soles are very flexible. The last is designed in a single size and then a set is made in the range of sizes and widths in which shoes are to be manufactured. Marked sizes will vary slightly from one manufacturer to another. No longer a popular technique.
Welted Shoes
Any construction using a welting, either as an intrigal part of the construction or simply for imitative effect.
Through Seam Shoes
Anthropometry
Studies show over 90% of people have different sized feet. Despite feet being the same length other dimensions vary with the individual foot. Activity of the foot will also change the shape of identical feet in accordance with the structure and function of the appendage. The idea of a perfect fit is not a reality. Because distribution or proportions of foot mass differ with individuals, which mean linear measurement such as length and breadth of the foot alone, are inadequate. It is important shoemakers consider mass and volume of feet if an exact fit is to be afforded. To ensure a best fit, measurements are taken at strategic locations and the shoemaker uses both linear as well volume measurement to construct a shoe. The modern last is made in three dimensions although it is not a direct replica of the foot. Instead it is made with production requirements, in mind. The lastmaker may take up to 35 measurements before the model last can be made. A shoe fitter may concentrate on length, ball width, heel, topline, arch and instep. The shoe is expected to wear well, feel well, keep its shape with wear, retain its style character, tread properly, allow for reasonable foot freedom, maintain both foot and shoe balance, remain structurally intact. These features are not always dependent on the quality of materials or components, or the manufacturing process. The design and multiple dimensions of the last provide the basis for the above.
Features built into a last include:
Measurements
The majority of measurements are volume rather than the traditional length and width associated with shoe fit.
Throat opening
The distance from the vamp point to the back seam tuck.
Length
The length measurement of the foot from the back of the heel to the tip of the longest toe.
Foot Girth
There are four girth and circumference measurements taken on a last. These are the ball, waist, instep and heel (back of heel to instep). Measurement requires careful assessment of the foot, which cannot be accomplished with the same precision as linear measurements. The modern last maker uses precision instruments to determine girth but the old shoemakers used the hand span to this same effect. Aspects of the foot were measured against the shoemaker’s hand, the ball of the foot was compared to the girth between the thumb and the middle finger. The instep was measured between the thumb and the little finger. This method was subject to enormous variations depending upon the size of the shoemaker’s hand.
􀂃 Ball girth This is the girth measurement around the ball of the last to determine the width and volume allowance inside the shoe.
􀂃 Waist girth The girth at the waist on the last.
􀂃 Instep girth The circumference around the foot at the instep.
􀂃 Heel girth The distance around the foot from the rear base of the heel to the top of the instep.
Recede Toe
This is the part of the last, which projects beyond the tip of the toes forming the rounded contour of the front of the shoe. A tapering recede such as in todays sharp shoes increases the overall length of the shoe. In a poorly designed last the recede may encroach on the toes increasing tension on the ends of the toes. This may be referred to as tight lasting.
Heel-to-ball
This dictates the position of the hinge of the forefoot (metatarsal phalangeal joints) and the widest part of the shoe (across the metatarsal heads).
Toe Spring
This describes the elevation of the undersurface of the sole at the toe to give a slight rocker effect to the shoe. The amount of toe spring (built into the last) depends on the shoe style, sole thickness and heel height. This is built into the last design and compensates for the stiffness of the footwear and provided a stress free take off into propulsion. The more rigid the soling material the greater the toe spring. Many shoes will also display a slight heel spring.
Tread
This describes the width across the sole under the ball of the last and it should correspond to the dimension of the feet. The tread point on the last represents the bottom forepart just behind the ball and in contact with the base plane.
Flare
This describes the curve or contour of the last. The swing is determined by the position of the forepart when the last is bisected longitudinally forwards from the centre of the heel arc. With In inflare lasts there is an inward medial swing to the forepart and most modern shoes are made on an inflare last (banana last) because it is thought shoes are more comfortable. An outflare last describes the opposite with the swing lying to the lateral side of the forepart. Sometimes used in bespoke footwear for infants with diagnosed foot development problems. Straights last describe neither an inflare or outflare preference. The long axis of the last when drawn through the bisection of the heel curve describes two equal longitudinal halves. The normal foot has a straight axis and hence straight lasted shoes can be worn on either foot. Prior to the introduction of machinery to make heeled shoes it was common to have shoe made with a straight flare until the turn of the twentieth century.
Methods of Shoe Construction
There are many ways to attach the sole to the upper but commercially only a few methods are preferred. Shoes were traditionally made by moulding leather to a wooden last. Modern technology has introduced many new materials and mechanised much of the manufacture. Remarkable as it may seem the manufacture of shoes remains fairly labour intensive. No matter the type of construction the first stage in construction is to attach the insole to the undersurface of the last. Two main operations follow : Lasting describes the upper sections are shaped to the last and insole. Followed by Bottoming, where the sole is attached to the upper. The process of bottoming will determine price, quality and performance of the shoe.
Cement
Alernative names include:
‘Stuck on construction’ (UK) and the ‘Compo Process’.
For lightweight and flexible footwear the outsole is stuck to the upper by an adhesive. Bonwelt is a variation with its distinguishing feature being a strip of welting attached by stitching or cementing to the top edge of the insole. The shoe is then flat lasted. This is not a true welt construction wherein the welt is attached to the rib of the insole.
Goodyear Welt
For high quality dress and town shoes the top section (or welt) is chain stitched to the upper and insole rib at the point where it curves under the last. This is supplemented by a lockstitch outseam bonding the welt and outsole. The outsole is then sewn to the welt around the edge. Goodyear Welt creates heavier less flexible footwear.
Stitchdown
Alernative names include:
Veldt or veldschoen
A cheaper method used to produce lightweight flexible soles for children’s shoes and some casual footwear describes the upper turned out (flanged) at the edge of the last. This is then stitched to the runner. In some countries it is known as ‘veldt’ and ‘veldtschoen.’
Mocassin
Thought to be the oldest shoe construction this consists of a single layer section, which forms the insole, vamp and quarters. The piece is moulded upwards from the Under surface of the last. An apron is then stitched to the gathered edges of the vamp and the sole is stitched to the base of the shoe. This method is used for flexible fashion footwear. The imitation moccasin has a visual appearance of a
moccasin but does not have the wrap around construction of the genuine moccasin.
Moulded Methods
The lasted upper is placed in a mould and the sole formed around it by injecting liquid synthetic soling material (PVC, urethane). Alternatively, the sole may be vulcanised by converting uncured rubber into a stable compound by heat and pressure. When the materials in the moulds cool the sole-upper bonding is complete. These methods combine the upper permanently into the sole and such shoes cannot therefore be repaired easily. Moulded methods can be used to make most types of footwear.
Force Lasting
Alternative names include:
The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock)
Force lasting has evolved from sport shoes but is increasingly used in other footwear. The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock) describes one of many force lasting techniques. The upper is sewn directly to a sock by means of an overlooking machine (Strobel stitcher) The upper is then pulled (force lasted) onto a last or moulding foot. Unit soles with raised walls or moulded soles are attached to completely cover the seam. This technique is sometimes known as the Californian process or slip lasting.
Shoe Styles
According to Rossi (1997) there are eight basic footwear styles with the rest made up as variations on the basic themes. To comply with definition a shoe describes footwear with a mechanism capable of holding the foot in the heel of the shoe to facilitate support during push off. Hence there are two critical aspect of shoes i.e.. the band around the instep and the section corresponding to the human heel. To prevent unnecessary movement these need to be firm and fit the foot.
Style
Brief Description
Boot
Any footwear extending above the ankle. There are numerous designs and types for a variety of uses and made from a number of materials.
Clog
A thick soled wooden shoe sometimes with leather upper.
Lace Up
Oxford Shoe
Derby Style
Any low cut shoe fastened by lacings, such as an Oxford or Blucher.
Style
Brief Description
Moccasin
Moccasin
Imitation Moccasin
The term moccasin originates from the Algonquian language for foot covering. The Algonquians were any of several North American Indian tribes formerly inhabiting the region along the Ottawa River and near the northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence River. The oldest
form of shoe dates back to 14,000 years and was thought to originate from the Mongol tribes who migrated along the Bering Strait into North America. Originally it described a simple one-piece hide, wrapped round the foot and held on with rawhide thongs. Later the Indians gradually stylised the moccasin by adding the moccasin plug, fringes and coloured beads, which depicted rank and occupation. Today moccasin shoes usually describe imitation moccasins, which had their origins in Norway. The Norwegian Peasant Slip-on (or weejun) was first imported to the US by tourists in the 1930s and later Gucci made a leather loafer in refined calfskin with a metal snaffle bit across the instep. Soon loafers were available in the spectator style (two colours). By the 50s Penny Loafers were all the rage with the campus Ivy League of the US. Made in ox blood they were also
known as the Norwegian slipper. The Low vamp loafer was designed for females and was made from soft
kid leather and cut low.
Mule
A backless shoe or slipper with or without a heel.
Style
Brief Discription
Sandal
Hieroglyphics
Sport Sandals
Casuals
Originally a slab of leather sole attached to the foot by thongs. Today any open
shoe who’s upper consists of any decorative or functional arrangement of straps. A sandal can be foot low to knee high, or with any heel height, designed for simple utility or casual wear or as a
fashion shoe.
Monks
Similar to Derby Shoes but with a
cross over section to fasten the quarters with a side buckle.
Pumps
Heeled shoes with low cut fronts and usually no fastening.
Sandals
Hieroglyphics
Sport Sandals
Casuals
Originally a slab of leather sole attached to the foot by thongs. Today any open
shoe who’s upper consists of any decorative or functional arrangement of straps. A sandal can be foot low to knee high, or with any heel height, designed for simple utility or casual wear or as a fashion shoe.
Shoe Size System
A continual frustration to many who care for the foot weary is the absence of a standard shoe size system. Although metrology and reliable measurements have been in existence for approximately two hundred years, the concept of a shoe sizing system is relatively recent. Shoe sizing systems based on standard metrological measurements have been in existence for just over 100 years but shoes made in half sizes have only been available half that time. As part of the protection many craftsmen operated in early times, shoes were individually coded. Like a painter signing the canvas, shoemakers marked the inside of the shoe with their persona codes. This deliberately kept the size a secret from the customer and virtually ensured their return for new shoes. This is still in evidence today and many manufacturers maintain individual size systems in order to promote customer loyalty. The first US record of shoes marked with sizes dates back to between 1860 and 1870. The procedure soon followed in England. It was only full sizes recorded (half sizes did not appear until the late 1880s). In 1886 the Hanan Shoe Co. were the first manufacturer to stamp their name on their shoes. In 1888 the first fitting stool was introduced to the trade by Sollers Shoe Manufacturing Co., Philadephia.
The Shoe Stick
The origin of shoe sticks date back to antiquity. They were described in Ancient Egypt, Rome and Greece and used by shoe and sandal makers. For centuries there was no shoe size standards or systems and each craftsman was free to use his own method. It was common to use their own bodies particularly their hands as gauges. An English yard for example was the length of the arm i.e. shoulder to fingertips or sometimes nose to fingertips. The problem was not everyone was the same size and when a human foot was used to measure footage of land, much depended on the size of the individual as to how much the purchaser bought and the seller sold. In Rome, the inch (which was one twelfth of a foot) measured the width across the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. By the 7th century in England, the barleycorn became a standard measurement with three ears of corn, laid end to end, equalling one inch. It took until the thirteenth century before the inch was officially sanctioned. Under pressure, Edward II (r. 1307-27) eventually succumbed to appeals from scholars and tradesmen to issue a decree to standardise measurement (Ledger, 1985). Henceforth an English inch was the distance measured across three barleycorns taken from the centre of the ear and placed end to end equalled an inch. Thirty nine (39) barleycorns laid end to end became a foot and 117 laid end to end became a yard. Whilst the barleycorn decree of Edward II had nothing to do with shoe sizes per se many shoemakers began to use shoe sticks. Tradesmen had traditionally used the handspan method of measurement, which preferred the quarter of an inch unit, but after the introduction of the barleycorn measure, many began to adopt the third of an inch unit. With 39 barley corns approximating the length of a normal foot, this was graded size 13 and became the largest shoe size. Other sizes were graded down by 1/3 rd of an inch or one barleycorn. It took until 1850 before the first uniform shoe stick using the English size system appeared. Ironically this took place in France and shoe sticks were not accepted in North America, until after 1900. Today shoes are marked according to one of three different length sizing systems depending on where the shoes were made. The three major systems are United Kingdom, American and Continental (or Paris Point):
American System
The first shoe sizing system with detailed proportional measurements for lasts and shoes came from North America. The instigator, Edwin B Simpson of New York, prepared the
first chart of standardised last measurements in 1880. This included shoe widths but it was another seven years before the Retail Boot and Shoe Dealer’s National Association adopted the system. Much of the impetus to introduce a size system had arisen during the American Civil War (1861-65) where mass produced shoes were made in left and rights for the first time. As the main shoe manufacturers were in the North then orders for soldiers required a size system. To make it easier for the Army to order shoes for their servicemen, each soldier was allocated a shoe size as well as a nametag. Despite the availability of inflare footwear, these were not comfortable and many complained. The Confederacy fought barefoot. Right and left shoes were not commercially available for another half century. Although North America legalised the use of the metric system the industry did not adopt it as the only means. Regular reviews of regulation have meet similar non-compliance. Consequently there remains little standardisation of shoe sizes within the US. Ironically the industry continues to use Imperial measurements and each manufacturer determines how large a certain size will be. The only standardisation is each full size is 1/3 of an inch longer than the previous size. Women’s shoes are marked 1 1/2 sizes different than men’s (a size 9 women’s shoe is equal in length to a size 7 1/2 men’s shoe). In the American (or Standard) System the first number in the code represents the width (1 = A, 2 = B) The second number followed by a zero denotes the whole size: when the second number is followed by a 5 it indicates a half size.
Adult Sizes
8.5
8.75
9.0
9.25
9.5
9.75
10
10.25
10.5
10.75
11
11.25
11.5
11.75
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Width Fitting
Shoe width represents both the linear and girth measurements at the ball, and is determined by the last. Several standard and width fittings are available in the UK size system to accommodate differences in three-dimensional girth. In women’s shoes, A is the narrowest and G the widest. For children the range is A to H; and for men it is from 1-8. The girth increase between fittings is normally 6.5mm. Most lines are only available in one size usually women’s D and men’s 4. The girth around the ball of the foot of the foot increases by 5mm for whole sizes up to children’s size 101/2 and 6.5mm for whole sizes above this. In the American system it is two less, eg AAA is the equivalent to the UK A. There is no equivalent Continental width fitting system and the shoes are generally narrower than in the UK. In the American (or Standard) System the first number in the code represents the width (1 = A, 2 = B) The second number followed by a zero denotes the whole size: when the second number is followed by a 5 it indicates a half size. In the American (Arithmetic standard width measurement) this ranges from AAAAA to EEEEEE.
Assessing Footwear
Most clients attend for treatment wearing dress shoes, which are not always their normal footgear. In those situations where shoe costume and foot are considered incompatible, practitioners may tactfully request the client bring the footwear worn for the majority of the working day. In situations where client’s shoes contribute to subjective symptoms but no apparent conscious acceptance is obvious then the practitioner may accept the clients personal choice is a life style decision. Adverse shoe conditions can excite pathologies, compromise prognosis and inhibit satisfactory practice but the choice of footwear always remains with the client. Under these circumstances negotiated care is required where neither party is compromised.
It is important to ascertain a client’s shoe wearing habits. Information about when, where, and how often shoes are bought can be very useful. To avoid a ‘halo effect’, however, assessment should involve tact and sensitivity, combined with a healthy scepticism. People will often report shoe-wearing habits they consider appropriate to a healthy life style especially in the presence of a foot physician. When gathering information tolerance is a virtue, with discretion and understanding essential assets. A sad fact in this day and age is not everyone can afford shoes, especially where multiple children are involved.
People buy shoes to meet specific purposes and all gain benefit from well informed advice. Most obtain perfectly adequate footwear from general or specialised retail outlets. For some, shoes require minor modification to accommodate specific requirements, such as a short leg, whereas a small minority need shoes made specifically to fit their feet ie. bespoke footwear. Made for feet shoes are classified as modular ie a type of footwear fabricated using stock lasts to which minor adjustments can be made; and True, bespoke footwear, which is, made form a customed last. These are available privately or with assistance from medical funds when prescribed. Mass produced or stock footwear is available single size/width or half size multi-width fittings. The former is usual for adult sizes and the latter more common in children shoes.
A list of good habits is in itself inappropriate and it is important to have reference to an appropriate portfolio ie shoe catalogue and suppliers if you wish to inform clients. Most fashion shoes are bought in self-service outlets, including the World Wide Web. Socio-economics determine the vast majority of shoe buyers can ill afford quality footwear associated with personal fitting or made to measure footwear. Most people prescribed orthopaedic footwear require some financial assistance.
Problems with fit
The problems are rarely single and often are multifactorial. Asymmetry and anatomical variation mean challenges for people seeking ideal fit. The style and pattern of a shoe bear an influence on size. The distribution of mass or volume within the shoe affects size and fit. The height of the heel can affect deportment and function, hence the shape of the foot. Shoe types such as fashion footwear and work boots may be fitted with a bit more
size allowance than the slightly snugger fit of an elegant fashion or dress shoe. The type of shoe construction can bare an influence. e.g. welts, cements, slip lasted, stitchdown, injection-moulded etc, will show slight differences in fit on the foot. Some manufacturers or brands apply their own particular specifications of dimensions on their lasts e.g. backpart, forepart, tread, etc. and this makes a difference in fit among different brands on a given size. The foot fitted in the morning will be smaller than the foot fitted in the afternoon. Toe shape of the shoe may influence the fit. Shoes with narrower toes may need to be worn a half size longer (when available).
Discussion
The concept of shoe fit is largely a subjective and personal matter on the part of the fitter or the customer or both. Size alone is not the only determining factor. Research form the Battelle Institute has shown there are at least 38 individual factors influencing or involved in shoe fit. Many of the 38 factors were subjective involving the opinion and attitudes of consumer and fitter alike. In the end it was the customer who determined whether the shoe fitted or not.

Fashion & Beauty

January 4, 2008

fashion and
beauty
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
: arts and humanities
Internet resources for
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
The best of the Web
Welcome to this guide to the best
of the Web for Fashion and Beauty.
In these pages you will find a selection
of some of the most useful websites for
students, lecturers and researchers
working in Fashion and Beauty.
The selection is by no means exhaustive,
but it should give you a flavour of the
range of resources available on the
Internet for education and research.
Supporting your Internet
research
For those interested in exploring the wider
Web, we offer free Internet search and
training services for further and higher
education via Intute – details of these can
be found at the end of the guide.
Front cover images from left to right:
Kisa Spring Summer Collection 07,
image supplied by swordfoxdesign.com
Green eyes. © Kateryna Govorushchenko, available from:
http://www.istockphoto.com/
Intute
This booklet is brought to you by Intute,
a free Internet service providing you with
access to the very best Web resources
for education and research, selected and
evaluated by a network of subject
specialists.
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Expert advice
Intute services are developed in
collaboration with staff from over seventy
universities, colleges and research
institutions across the UK – pooling
expertise to share nationally.
Your guide for this booklet is:
Contents
Costume and Fashion
Accessories 1
Costume and clothing 1
Fashion design and designers 2
Fashion shows and fashion weeks 3
Fashion history 4
Fashion industry 5
Fashion magazines 5
Fashion photography 6
Footwear 7
Textiles for fashion 8
Trends and forecasting 8
Health and Beauty
Beauty and holistic therapy 9
Beauty news and trends 9
Body Modification 10
Cosmetic and beauty products 10
Cosmetic science 11
Hair and make-up 12
A PDF copy of this booklet can be downloaded from:
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/support.html
Note: Intute: Arts and Humanities comprises
the former RDN hubs, Artifact and Humbul.
: arts and humanities
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Internet resources for fashion and beauty
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/ 1
Accessories
British Glove Association (BGA)

http://www.gloveassociation.org/

The national trade association for the glove industry in the UK. The website provides
historical and practical information, a guide to measuring gloves and a bibliography of
publications.
British Hat Guild

http://www.britishhatguild.co.uk/

The aim of the British Hat Guild is to “promote and
enhance the reputation and status of the British hat
industry”. Their website includes an educational
database, plus news and careers information.
Hatsuk.com

http://www.hatsuk.com/

Run by Hat Magazine, this website contains information
on everything from millinery to hats. Includes the Hat Bible, a glossary, the Global Hat
Directory, a fashion news feed and a forum.
Wrist Fashion

http://www.wristfashion.com/

A weblog described as being for the “wristwatch afficionado”. It is aimed at the
wristwatch industry, but also publishes the latest news, trends and products from the
wristwatch industry.
Costume and clothing
Costume Designers Guild (CDG)

http://www.costumedesignersguild.com/

The CDG’s website provides information on the Guild’s history, constitution, and
membership details. Other features include a members’ list, a gallery and details of
the CDG awards.
Company Clothing

http://www.clothingatwork.co.uk/

Company Clothing Magazine provides articles for the corporate clothing industry,
including news, jobs listings and a directory of companies that offer corporate clothing
and workwear within the UK.
Costume Page: Costuming Resources Online

http://www.costumepage.org/

This resource list contains over 2,000 links to costume-related resources. Subjects
include the Study of Costume, Making & Wearing Costumes, Suppliers, and
Accessories.
Costume and Fashion

http://www.britishhatguild.co.uk/

Internet resources for fashion and beauty
2 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
Directore

http://www.director-e.com/director-e/index.asp

Directore provides information on accessories, clothing, fabrics, company profiles,
contracts, trends and services relating to the textile industry.
Fashion Educational Index

http://www.skillsonline.com.au/fashion/

An online database of websites relevant to the teaching and learning of fashion and
textiles. Covers design, garment construction, millinery, fashion history and materials.
Professional Association of Custom Clothiers (PACC)

http://www.paccprofessionals.org/index.html

A North American non-profit making organisation, founded to promote the custom
sewing industry. The website contains a list of members, educational material, and
FAQs.
Fashion design and designers
Centre for Fashion Enterprise (CFE)

http://www.fashion-enterprise.com/main.html

Based at the London College of Fashion, the CFE aims to enable London-based
fashion start-ups to become viable, sustainable businesses by providing them with
vital access to management expertise, capital, knowledge and resources.
Contemporary Fashion Archive (CFA)

http://www.contemporaryfashion.net/

An international project that addresses contemporary fashion design. Features
collections and projects of various international fashion and accessory designers,
whose work is characterised by an experimental and innovative approach to fashion.
Fashion Encyclopedia

http://www.fashionencyclopedia.com/

This is a fashion encyclopedia which can be searched or
browsed alphabetically, covering fashion designers, fashion
companies and labels.
Fashionfringe.co.uk

http://www.fashionfringe.co.uk/

Fashion Fringe is an annual competition, aiming to find the
fashion designers of the future. The website includes
information about the event, along with key dates and
application forms.
firstVIEW

http://www.firstview.com/

firstVIEW offers thousands of pictures of the latest fashion
http://www.firstview.com/ collections from Milan, Paris, London and New York.
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
Fashion shows and fashion weeks
Camera Nazionale della Moda Italiana

http://www.cameramoda.it/eng/

The Camera Nazionale della Moda Italiana (The National Chamber for Italian Fashion)
organises the Milan fashion weeks, featured on this website under ‘Events’.
Graduate Fashion Week

http://www.gfw.org.uk/

Graduate Fashion Week shows recent graduates’ work from the UK’s fashion and
textile colleges, culminating in the Gala Fashion Show and Awards on the last
evening.
Japan Fashion Week in Tokyo

http://www.jfw.jp/en/

A particular strength of Japan Fashion Week is in accessories and lifestyle goods,
reflecting Japan’s prominence in these areas. The website includes a schedule and
photographs of events and collections.
Lakmé India Fashion Week

http://lakmeindiafashionweek.indiatimes.com/

Promoting the emerging presence of Indian fashion on the world scene, the Lakmé
India Fashion Week website lists designers and features images of catwalk shows.
London Fashion Week

http://www.londonfashionweek.co.uk/

This website gives information on the London Fashion Week,
from the designers’ exhibition to catwalk shows, and includes
detailed press coverage of the event.
Mercedez Benz Fashion week: Los Angeles

http://www.mercedesbenzfashionweek.com/

The Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week showcases the fashion
industry in Los Angeles. Includes reports on the ‘scene’ (as
much a part of fashion weeks as the clothes themselves).
Mode á Paris

http://www.modeaparis.com/va/index.html

The website of the Haute Couture and Ready-to-Wear Paris
fashion shows provides forthcoming show dates and documents
previous seasons’ designers and collections.
Olympus Fashion Week: New York

http://www.olympusfashionweek.com/spring2005/intro.html

The website of the New York’s fashion week provides a
schedule for this show, press information and runway reports.
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/ 3
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
4 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
Fashion history
A & L Tirocchi Dressmakers Project: the RISD Museum

http://tirocchi.stg.brown.edu/intro.html

514 Broadway was a time capsule of early twentieth fashion dressmaking and this
resource tells the story of the Tirocchi dressmaking business with a database of
archive material.
AHDS Visual Arts

http://www.ahds.ac.uk/visualarts/

AHDS Visual Arts maintains a large
online archive of digital resources,
including images of textiles, historic
clothing, lace, tapestry and
weaving, and has a variety of
learning materials based on these.
AHRB Pockets of History
Project
http://www.wsa.soton.ac.uk/research/ research-projects/The-AHRB-Pockets-of-
History-Project.asp
This project researched women’s tie-on pockets. The study explores what they meant
to the women who wore them, and how they reflect the way women in the past saw
themselves.
European Textile Routes

http://www.etn-net.org/routes/

This is an exploration of the history of European textiles, categorised into themes of:
recurrent events; textile heritage; textile production; education and research.
Fabrics Forming Society

http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/learning/designingbritain/html/ffs.html

This is an image-led introduction to fashion and textile design, and its social history in
Britain in the mid-Twentieth century, based on the Design Council Archive.
Greek Costume Through the Centuries

http://www.annaswebart.com/culture/costhistory/

This website provides a history of Greek costume from the Minoan civilisation
(4th millennium BC), through the ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods to the
19th century.
Scottish Textiles Heritage Online

http://www.scottishtextiles.org.uk/

The Scottish Textiles Heritage Online makes textile collections from Scottish museums
available through a database and image gallery.

http://www.ahds.ac.uk/visualarts/

Internet resources for fashion and beauty
wwwww.inwt.uintetu.atec.auck./uhke/aalrthtsaannddlihfeusmcaiennitcies/ 5
Sixties Fashion

http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/fashion/

1960s/sixtiesfashion/
This Victoria and Albert Museum resource examines British
fashion from the mid-1950s to the early 1970s. Includes
interviews with influential figures and a film examining the
London fashion scene in 1967.
V&A: Collections: Fashion, Jewellery & Accessories

http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/fashion/index.html

The Victoria and Albert Museum’s collection covers dress and
accessories from the 17th century to the present, emphasising
influential designs from Europe’s major fashion centres.
Fashion industry
Fashion Capital

http://www.fashioncapital.co.uk/

A website for London’s fashion design community, offering trend, catwalk and industry
news, business information and advice, education and training opportunities, and an
events diary.
Fashion Model Directory

http://www.fashionmodeldirectory.com/

Fashion Model Directory is a database of professional models, model agencies,
designers and other occupations connected to the international fashion industry.
Fashion Wire Daily (FWD)

http://www.fashionwiredaily.com/

Fashion Wire Daily is an online magazine, updated daily, with abridged articles and
photographs of the latest news and happenings in the fashion and beauty industry.
Manchester Fashion Network

http://www.manchesterfashion.com/

Established to support designers and other fashion and textiles professionals within
Manchester, this resource provides a directory that covers retail, recruitment, grants,
funding, photographers, designers and more.
Fashion magazines
Dazed & Confused

http://www.confused.co.uk/

Dazed & Confused is an independent magazine published in the UK, covering
fashion, music, film, art and ideas. The website includes highlights from the latest
issue, and an archive of back issues.
Bauhaus’ printed linen and
cotton fabric designed by Susan
Collier for Liberty & Co. (1972)
© Design Council Slide
Collection at Manchester
Metropolitan University
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
6 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
Elle

http://www.elle.com/

Representing “fashion, beauty and style – with a brain”, Elle’s online incarnation has
selected articles from the current print issue, a discussion forum and archived
features on fashion, catwalk trends, beauty and style.
Harper’s Bazaar

http://www.harpersbazaar.com/

American fashion magazine Harper’s Bazaar’s website contains preview articles of
the latest print issue, as well as details on previous issues going back to August 2002.
Label France Magazine, Culture, Fashion

http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/label_france/index/gb/arts-mode.html

Includes features on French designers such as Yves Saint Laurent and Jean-Paul
Gaultier, and behind-the-scenes looks at France’s fashion industry.
Vogue.com

http://www.vogue.co.uk/

Contains information about fashion and beauty, from daily fashion and style news to
catwalk reports and photographs, a Who’s Who of fashion designers and models, and
a celebrity gallery.
Fashion photography
Helmut Newton: Death of a Voyeur

http://www.culturecourt.com/B/LR/HelmutNewton.htm

Helmut Newton’s erotically-charged images blur fashion photography and fine art.
This useful introduction by Lawrence Russell is illustrated with key images from
Newton’s career.
Herb Ritts

http://www.herbritts.com/

The website of the Herb Ritts Foundation includes a gallery of Ritt’s most famous
images, a biography, an interview with Ritts and a list of exhibitions and publications.
Mario Testino

http://www.mariotestino.com/

This is the official website of fashion photographer
Mario Testino, known for his iconic portraits of Diana,
Princess of Wales and Madonna.
Rankin

http://www.rankin.co.uk/

This showcases leading fashion photographer Rankin
through key projects such as ‘One Dress’. There is
little text, but the large number of photographs gives a
real sense of Rankin’s work.

http://www.rankin.co.uk/

Internet resources for fashion and beauty
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/ 7
SHOWstudio

http://www.showstudio.com/

SHOWstudio invites leading creators from the fields of design, film, new media and
fashion to collaborate on new work and transmit live events online, much of it
archived here.
Wolfgang Tillmans

http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/tillmans/default.htm

Fashion-influenced photography that finds an edgy, unorthodox beauty in the world.
The exhibition ‘if one thing matters everything matters’ at Tate Britain included images
derived from his commercial fashion photoshoots.
Yevonde Portrait Archive

http://www.madameyevonde.com/

A biography of 1930’s society photographer Madame Yevonde, from her experiments
with the pioneering Vivex colour process to her famous ‘Goddess’ series (in which
society beauties of the day were photographed as classical deities).
Footwear
BATA Shoe Museum

http://www.batashoemuseum.ca/

This Canadian website contains information on the museum’s five main collections -
North American Indian, Ethnological, Circumpolar, History of Western Fashion, and
Walk of Fame.
British Footwear Association

http://www.britfoot.com/

The representative body of UK suppliers of footwear. Their
website provides information on business news, consumer
information, statistics, FAQs and a list of footwear suppliers.
Footwear News

http://www.footwearnews.com/

An American weekly magazine for the footwear industry,
providing information on news and events. Past issues,
dating back to 1994, can be accessed on payment of a fee.
Northampton Museum and Art Gallery:
National Footwear Collection

http://www.northampton.gov.uk/museums

This website provides information about the gallery’s
collections, including a history of shoes, the ‘Followers of
Fashion’ permanent shoe gallery and the ‘Life and Sole
Gallery’.
Platform clog, mule (c.1975).
© London College of Fashion
Textiles for fashion
Chinese Textiles from the Collections of the Field Museum, Chicago

http://www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/anthropology/

anthro_sites/NEA/index.html
This website features Chinese Textiles dating back to the 18th century with image
galleries, maps and references.
Extreme Textiles: Designing for High Performance

http://www.cooperhewitt.org/exhibitions/extreme_textiles/

This is the online companion to the Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum
exhibition, which showed how technical textiles are transforming fashion, medicine
and aerospace.
Smart Textiles for Intelligent Consumer Products

http://www.smartextiles.co.uk/

The Smart Textiles Network explores the future of textiles: ‘intelligent clothing’ where
textile design and information technology converge.
Textile Conservation Centre Research Projects

http://www.wsa.soton.ac.uk/textile-conservation-centre/

Research projects range from the examination of Reformation liturgical textiles to
cutting-edge technology in smart and techno-textiles.
Thirteen Weavers

http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/ixbin/hixclient.exe?_IXDB_=vads&_IXSESSION_=x7mrdJ7I

Based on the Crafts Study Centre’s collection, this resource provides a guide to
prominent contemporary weavers, with biographies and an annotated database of
images of their work.
Whitworth Art Gallery, The

http://www.manchester.ac.uk/whitworth/

The Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester makes available online its outstanding
collection of textiles and decorated materials.
Trends and forecasting
Drapers: the Fashion Business Weekly

http://www.drapersonline.com/

The British weekly magazine that covers the fashion
market and provides the latest news, trend advice,
consumer insight, catwalk and exhibition coverage and
business information from the fashion industry.
Fashion Trendsetter

http://www.fashiontrendsetter.com/

An online fashion forecasting, trend reporting and
news e-zine, containing fashion, colour and style
information from the trade fairs and fashion shows.
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
8 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
http://www.drapersonline.com
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/ 9
Trendreport.com

http://www.thetrendreport.com/fashion/home.cfm?info=1

This provides information on current styles and trends. Images and information are
available to view and there is also a topical trend report.
WGSN-edu

http://www.wgsn-edu.com/edu/

A service that enables access to the Worth Global Style Network (WGSN) website.
Contains downloadable images which may be used for teaching and learning
purposes, as well as industry news and analysis, fashion retailing information and
designer profiles. Institutional registration required.
Health and Beauty
Beauty and holistic therapy
Association of Reflexologists (AoR)

http://www.aor.org.uk/

The AoR provides information on reflexology worldwide.
Complete Guide to the Alexander Technique

http://www.alexandertechnique.com/

This guide to the Alexander Technique explains what it is, who can
benefit, how to find a teacher and what happens during a lesson.
International Federation of Aromatherapists (IFA)

http://www.ifaroma.org/

This website includes information about research and education
programmes, workshops, the IFA magazine and a selection of
articles about aromatherapy issues.
Virtual Beauty Care

http://www.virtualbeautycare.com/

Virtual Beauty Care is an Australian site that covers many aspects of beauty care and
provides information for the consumer and professional alike.
Beauty news and trends
BeautyServe

http://www.beautyserve.com/

BeautyServe has a directory of trade suppliers and training schools, a newsdesk, and
a library of articles to which users are invited to contribute.
Behindthechair.com

http://www.behindthechair.com/

A website for the American hair and beauty industries. The site provides extensive
information on current trends and collections in hairstyling, nails, skin, make-up, and
spa treatments.
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
10 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
Facial Aesthetic Conference and Exhibition (FACE)

http://www.cosmeticconference.co.uk/

This website provides details of past and upcoming conferences for cosmetic and
aesthetic industry practitioners.
Uzuri

http://www.modeafrique.com/

An African fashion magazine that contains sections on beauty, hair and lifestyle, as
well as articles about fashion. There is also a news section and images of the latest
trends can be viewed.
Body modification
Art of Mehndi

http://www.rupalpinto.com/mehndi/

This site is dedicated to all aspects of the temporary Indian body art, known as
mehndi, starting with a tutorial explaining techniques and outcomes.
Association of Professional Piercers

http://www.safepiercing.org/

This US-based professional body, representing body piercing and piercers, provides
information about piercing, including health risks, oral piercing, choosing a piercer,
and aftercare.
Body Art

http://www.amonline.net.au/bodyart/

Body Art explores the different ways, both temporary and
permanent, in which people modify, change, decorate and
adorn their bodies.
Body Art: Marks of Identity

http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/bodyart/

This exhibition’s website examines the history, practice
and cultural significance of body art, piercing and tattoos
from around the world dating from 3000 BC to the present.
Urban Primitive

http://www.urbanprimitive.com/2006b/index.html

A Toronto-based body modification studio, Urban Primitive’s website provides a tattoo
image database, aftercare advice and help researching tattoo designs.
Cosmetic and beauty products
BASF

http://www.basf.com/

BASF is a leading chemical company, with a portfolio ranging from chemicals to
nutrition. The website includes data sheets for their products including cosmetic
ingredients.
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/ 11
Clinique

http://www.clinique.co.uk/

The Clinique website contains information on their products, expert tips on skin care
and make-up and a skin report facility through which the user can discover their
skin type.
Happi

http://www.happi.com/

Happi is a monthly magazine aimed at people involved in personal care, household,
industrial and institutional work. Products covered include soaps, detergents,
cosmetics and toiletries.
International Speciality Products

http://www.ispcorp.com/

International Speciality Products supply chemicals to the skin and hair care industry.
Their website has data sheets for their products.
Cosmetic science
Botanical Dermatology Database

http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/

The Botanical Dermatology Database provides information on plants and plant
products and their dermatological indications, reactions and effects.
British Skin Foundation

http://www.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/

The British Skin Foundation is a charity set up, in association
with the British Association of Dermatologists, to promote
awareness of, and support research into skin disease.
Cosmetic, Toiletry & Perfumery Association (CTPA)

http://www.ctpa.org.uk/

The UK trade association for the cosmetic and personal care
industry. The website includes links to The Cosmetic Products
(Safety) Regulations 1996 and subsequent amendments and
information about ingredient labelling.
Cosmeticsbusiness.com

http://www.cosmeticsbusiness.com/

An online news, events and information resource for the cosmetics industry.
European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA)

http://www.colipa.com/

COLIPA promotes the interests of the cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery industry
throughout Europe.
International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC)

http://www.ifscc.org/

IFSCC is a worldwide federation dedicated to co-operation in cosmetic science.
Internet resources for fashion and beauty
12 http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/
International Fragrance Association (IFRA)

http://www.ifraorg.org/

The IFRA promotes the advancement and development of the fragrance industry
worldwide.
Hair and make-up
Face Art

http://www.faceart.com/makeup/tips/articles/faceart/index.php

A make-up techniques website, with sections entitled eyeart, lipart, hairart and skinfo.
Includes articles and a gallery of photographs.
HABIA: the National Training Organisation for Hairdressing in the UK

http://www.habia.org/

An independent training organisation for the UK hairdressing and
beauty therapy industries that offers a range of services to students,
salons, educators and those seeking employment.
Hairdressing Training

http://hairdressing.mimas.ac.uk/

An interactive online training resource, designed specifically for the UK
education community.
Institute of Trichologists

http://www.trichologists.org.uk/

This website contains information on consulting a trichologist, common
trichological conditions (such as alopecia and psoriasis), clinics,
courses, careers and news.
Internet for Hairdressing and Beauty

http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/tutorial/hair/

This Intute: Virtual Training Suite (VTS) tutorial focuses on hairdressing
and beauty studies written by experts working within those fields.
Look Good… Feel Better

http://www.lookgoodfeelbetter.org/

This is aimed at women in cancer treatment. It includes step-by-step guides to skin
care and make-up, as well as hair care tips, including wig choice and styling.
UK Hairdressers

http://www.ukhairdressers.com/

This is an extensive range of resources for the UK hair industry, including hair care tips,
illustrated guides to hair styling, links to hair product sites and a gallery of hairstyles.
Wella UK

http://www.wella.co.uk/

The UK website of the Wella Group contains information on products, trends and
the company itself, including a link to the Wella Museum, which covers the history of
hair care.
Discover the best of the Web using Intute
The Internet can be a powerful tool for learning, teaching and research, offering a huge range of
information and services. However, finding relevant resources online can be a daunting task, and
issues of trust, quality and poor search skills are very real and significant concerns – particularly
in education and research contexts.
Intute exists to help students, teachers, researchers and librarians make sense of the Web by
providing access to the very best Internet resources for education and research, selected and
evaluated by a network of subject specialists.
Getting involved with Intute
• Sign up for a personal MyIntute account, which
provides weekly email updates of recently reviewed
websites and allows you to save resources of interest.
• Working with Intute. Join our community of users of
online resources by suggesting sites for the database
or embedding Intute services in your own websites and
Virtual Learning Environments using our sophisticated
MyIntute Include services.

http://www.intute.ac.uk/myintute/

: arts and humanities
http://www.intute.ac.uk Helpdesk: http://www.intute.ac.uk/feedback.html
• The Intute: Arts and Humanities database provides access to thousands of high-quality
Internet resources, selected and described by subject specialists, and covers all key areas of
arts and humanities.
• The Virtual Training Suite offers free Internet training with a set of “teach-yourself” online
tutorials, designed to help students develop their Internet research skills.
• Free support materials for universities and colleges, such as flyers, posters, leaflets and
presentations as well as a range of “best of the Web” subject booklets.
• Limelight, a regular feature showcasing individual artists, topical subjects, new and
noteworthy websites, or forthcoming events, exhibitions or festivals. Each feature gives
information, links to related sites in the Intute: Arts and Humanities database and suggestions
for possible searches.
• Search for notable figures in the Arts and Humanities via the People Index, including links to
relevant resources in the database.
• Quick and easy access to scholarly electronic journals in the Arts and Humanities, and to the
websites of AHRC-funded research projects.
March 2007


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